Apart from death, the worst punishment pirates gave each other was marooning. A pirate who stole from his comrades was put ashore on a remote island and left. Men marooned on small islands usually died of starvation, but some survived for years. Alexander Selkirk was marooned on Juan Fernandez in 1705 and rescued in 1709. His story is the basis of the famous novel ‘Robinson Crusoe’, by Daniel Defoe.